Publications

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among a group of female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: This study was part of a randomised, placebo controlled trial of monthly prophylaxis with 1 g of azithromycin to prevent STIs and HIV infection in a cohort of Nairobi FSWs. Consenting women were administered a questionnaire and screened for STIs. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HIV-1 among 543 FSWs screened was 30%.

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BACKGROUND: Sexual and health-seeking behaviors are important components of sexually transmitted disease (STD) control. GOALS: To generate data for improved STD prevention and care, and to assess sexual behavior and relevant health-seeking behavior. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire to elicit social, demographic, healthcare-seeking, and sexual behavior information was administered to 471 patients attending the referral clinic for STDs in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: A large proportion of the patients had sought treatment in public and private sectors before attending the clinic for STDs.

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The study assessed the value of currently-available data on the rates of caesarean section as an indicator of safe-motherhood programmes. Data, collected through the routine health information system of the Ministry of Health, Kenya, were used for analyzing the available process indicators. The methodology of this study illustrates both usefulness and limitations of readily-available healthcare information. The rate of hospital-based caesarean section was 6.3% of all births (range 0.3-37%), whereas the rate of population-based caesarean section was 0.95% (range 0.1%-4%).

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OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the performance, effectiveness, and costs of a decentralized antenatal syphilis screening program in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Health clinic data, quality control data, and costs were analyzed. RESULTS: The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) seroprevalence was 3.4%. In terms of screening, treatment, and partner notification, the program's performance was adequate. The program's effectiveness was problematic because of false-negative and false-positive RPR results. The cost per averted case was calculated to be US$95 to US$112.

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SETTING: Nairobi City Council Chest Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine if under-reading of sputum smears is a contributing factor in the disproportionate increase in smear-negative tuberculosis in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODOLOGY: Between October 1997 and November 1998, patients fulfilling the local programme definition of smear-negative presumed pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled in the study. Two further sputum specimens were collected for examination in a research laboratory by fluorescence microscopy.

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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine on mother-to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in a breastfeeding population. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was conducted in a governmental hospital in Mombasa, Kenya. On alternating weeks, women were allocated to non-intervention or to intervention consisting of vaginal lavage with 120 ml 0.2% chlorhexidine, later increased to 0.4%, repeated every 3 h from admission to delivery. Infants were tested for HIV by DNA polymerase chain reaction within 48 h and at 6 and 14 weeks of life.

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Our objectives were to describe the baseline findings of a trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV-1 in a cohort of Nairobi female sex workers (FSWs). A questionnaire was administered and a medical examination was performed. HIV-negative women were randomly assigned to either one gram azithromycin or placebo monthly. Mean age of the 318 women was 32 years, mean duration of sex work 7 years and mean number of clients was 4 per day.

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BACKGROUND: The correlation between the presence of HIV-1 in maternal cervicovaginal secretions and in the infant's oro-pharyngal secretions at birth, and mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) were examined to obtain a better understanding of its mechanism. METHODS: Women without medical and obstetrical complications, living within a reasonable distance of the government hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, were recruited after informed consent. Maternal and infant characteristics were collected. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal and oro-pharyngal secretions.

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