Publications

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the proportion of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte profiles during pregnancy, at delivery and postpartum, and to determine whether HIV-1 infection affects the normal profile. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 416 pregnant HIV-1-infected women and an age and parity-matched HIV-seronegative group of 407 pregnant women were enrolled into a prospective study on the impact of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy. Maternal blood was obtained for lymphocyte subset determination at enrollment, delivery and 6 weeks postpartum.

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A decentralized syphilis control program in pregnant women was implemented in nine Nairobi City Council antenatal clinics between July 1992 and August 1993, whereby pregnant women were screened for syphilis, treated before leaving the clinic if RPR seroreactive, and counselled on the importance of partner treatment and sexual abstinence during treatment in order to protect their unborn babies from getting congenital syphilis.

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A decentralized syphilis control program in pregnant women was implemented in nine Nairobi City Council antenatal clinics between July 1992 and August 1993, whereby pregnant women were screened for syphilis, treated before leaving the clinic if RPR seroreactive, and counselled on the importance of partner treatment and sexual abstinence during treatment in order to protect their unborn babies from getting congenital syphilis.

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SUMMARY: Large numbers of pregnant women in Africa have been invited to participate in studies on HIV infection. Study protocols adhere to guidelines on voluntary participation after pre-test and post-test counseling and informed consent; nevertheless, women may consent because they have been asked to do so without fully understanding the implications of being tested for HIV.

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Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.

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Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.

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OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine maternal, obstetric, and infant characteristics of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Nairobi, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: Proviral human immunodeficiency virus-1 was detected by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples taken between 6 weeks and 3 months of age from 107 children born to human immunodeficiency virus-1 seropositive women. The association of maternal, infant, and obstetric variables with human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission was examined.

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PIP:The AIDS epidemic is a rapidly growing problem in Nairobi, where the seroprevalence in pregnant women increased from 4% in 1988 to over 10% in 1991. 22 HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women and 1 HIV-1-infected baby (K88) attending the Pumwani Maternity Hospital of Nairobi between 1990 and 1992 were studied as part of a cohort study of maternal risk factors in mother-to-child transmission. A 250-base pair (bp) fragment of the env gene encoding C2V3 was amplified mostly from DNA isolated from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subsequently sequenced.

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PIP:The AIDS epidemic is a rapidly growing problem in Nairobi, where the seroprevalence in pregnant women increased from 4% in 1988 to over 10% in 1991. 22 HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women and 1 HIV-1-infected baby (K88) attending the Pumwani Maternity Hospital of Nairobi between 1990 and 1992 were studied as part of a cohort study of maternal risk factors in mother-to-child transmission. A 250-base pair (bp) fragment of the env gene encoding C2V3 was amplified mostly from DNA isolated from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subsequently sequenced.

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Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a significant problem in countries with endemic HIV-1 infection. Between 1986 and 1991, 365 children of HIV-1-infected mothers and 363 control children were studied in Kenya. The overall risk of transmission from mother to child, determined by serologic evidence of infection by age > or = 12 months and excess mortality in the HIV-1-exposed group, was 42.8% (range, 27.6%-62.2%).

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